Many tree species, important to hoolock gibbons, are common in both Lawachara and Kaptai, but are in various early stages of regeneration compared to more commercially important species. We conducted a stepwise multiple regression using the number of hoolock gibbons as the response variable and the area of natural forest, area of plantations, area of agricultural land, and edible plant species richness as explanatory variables. Skywalker hoolock gibbon, Hoolock tianxing. This is the first quantitative study illustrating the importance of these two variables with hoolock gibbon numbers. Species threat status is taken from the IUCN Red List of endangered species, available at www.iucnredlist.org At the time of the survey, one USD was roughly equivalent to 1,000 kyat. J Trop Ecol 7(1):147-53. Most of these sites fall under the jurisdiction of different forest divisions and have undergone extensive deforestation and habitat alteration over the last two decades (Gain 2002). Lawachara and Kaptai are the two sites in Bangladesh that currently harbor the largest hoolock gibbon populations (Islam et al. The use of natural forest categorized by the Forest Department, therefore, does not provide any clear information on the habitat of hoolock gibbons, other than the fact that whatever habitat available to them had declined significantly over the years. A further new species, Hoolock tianxing, with an estimated population of about 200 in China, was discovered in southwest China in 2017. Search for an endangered species profile. The species’ populations have been declining due to habitat destruction of various forms and hunting for meat. Hoolock hoolock. Particularly important is the impact of converting increasingly larger areas of forest for agriculture. Ten sites were identified from the northeastern region and 25 sites from the southeastern region (Table 1). If it appears incomplete or if you wish to see article references, visit the rest of its contents, Eight Inexpensive Ways You Can Help Endangered Species. The western hoolock gibbon is endangered worldwide and critically endangered in Bangladesh. Similarly, this study also provides the first quantitative link between agricultural land area and hoolock gibbon numbers across the study sites. We compiled a list of all the plant species whose leaves, shoots, fruits, flowers are reported to be eaten by hoolock gibbons from Islam and Feeroz (1992), Ahsan (1994), and FD/MOEF (2000a). The Western Hoolock gibbon is an endangered lesser ape found in Asia. We are also grateful to Anthony Di Fiore and three anonymous reviewers for critically reviewing a previous version of the manuscript and providing suggestions that have significantly improved this manuscript. Trees in Kaptai were larger when compared to Lawachara and regenerating, fruit‐producing trees in both sites must be protected to maintain the high floristic diversity important to hoolock gibbons. Populations such as the one in Lawachara National Park have remained relatively constant since much of the area categorized as natural forest is still intact. Hoolock gibbon has been categorized as endangered in the IUCN-red list. However, it’s also edged with sadness – as we’re also calling for the IUCN to immediately confer Endangered status on the Skywalker hoolock gibbon, which faces the same grave and imminent risk to its survival as many other small ape species in southern China … Hoolock hoolock. (2006) counted the total hoolock gibbon population at each site (a total of 282 hoolock gibbons in 96 groups in 24 of the 35 sites). It might possibly occur in China (extreme southeastern Tibet). Trees in Lawachara were generally smaller compared to those in Kaptai. These habitat characteristics can simply be regarded as baseline information on the current conditions under which hoolock gibbons seem to be thriving. 1987, MacKinnon & MacKinnon 1987, Mootnick et al. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 put them in the list of Schedule-I species. These maps divide each site into: (i) natural forests; (ii) plantations; (iii) agricultural lands; and (iv) other uses (combined use of forest village, grazing land, etc.). The species of hoolock are: Western hoolock gibbon, Hoolock hoolock. Those found in Assam represents more than 70% of the Indian population. More to come soon. Considerable areas of forestlands in Bangladesh have lost hoolock gibbon populations completely (Ahsan 2001; Islam et al. We examined the influence of area of natural forests, area … This species is found particularly east of the Chindwin River in Myanmar and in southwest Yunnan (China). Higher edible plant species richness was directly related to hoolock gibbon numbers, while the area of agricultural land was inversely related. Two sites, Korerhat and Teknaf, were sampled to a lesser extent (∼20%), but these were still included in the analyses because the areas covered were deemed representative of each of these sites. We used part of this count data (22 sites) in our analyses to explore the link between hoolock gibbon numbers and habitat variables, since the information on all the variables being considered were not available for all 35 sites (Table 1). Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. A further new species, Hoolock tianxing, with an estimated population of about 200 in China, was discovered in southwest China in 2017. We studied habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons in Bangladesh to examine the variables that are important in determining hoolock gibbon numbers. Islam et al. Additionally, timber trees of commercial value that are old enough to be logged should be replaced by combinations of fruit‐producing tree species to maintain and even enhance this diversity. 2006). Learn about our remote access options, School of Environmental Science and Management, Independent University, House No. The rapid destruction and alteration of habitat (by plantation of exotic monoculture species) that continues in an unplanned manner throughout Bangladesh will undoubtedly result in the extinction of the species. The western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is a globally threatened species, and in Bangladesh it is critically endangered. 1987, Choudhury 1990, Islam & Feeroz 1992, Choudhury 2001, Feeroz 2001, Molur et al. In Bangladesh both species are critically endangered and distributed mainly in the northeast and southeast hilly regions bordering neighboring India and Myanmar. Habitat Characteristics and Their Effects on the Density of Groups of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. We estimate that by this procedure, we sampled 40 to 100 percent of the area within each site. We are grateful to the Forest Department of the Government of Bangladesh for access and accommodation at many of the study sites. The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae, native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India … 2004, Molur et al. The species is confined to 29 fragmented forested areas in western and central Java. A variety of food species for hoolocks including Artocarpus chapalasha, Bixa orellana, Dipterocarpus spp., Syzygium spp., Mangifera sylvatica, Protium serratum, Entada spp., Ficus spp., and Lagersrtoemia speciosa, were represented in the point samples from both sites. Photo: Professor Fan Peng-Fei of Sun Yat-Sen University, China. Hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) are endangered small apes occurring in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and south China. The Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is one of the last strongholds of the western hoolock gibbon, which the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) lists as an endangered species on its Red List. However, the category referred to as “natural forests” in the Forest Department's database is poorly defined and includes shrub vegetation, open patches, and other kinds of habitat that were originally natural forests but have become modified over the years (Kabir & Muzaffar 2002). We presented the result of a systematic survey on the population size and distribution of the Endangered Gaoligong hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing) in Houqiao Town, Tengchong City, Yunnan Province of China.A total of 15–18 individuals of H. tianxing in 5–6 gibbon groups and one solitary gibbon were recorded during the survey conducted in November 2019. The conservation value of degraded forests for agile gibbons Hylobates agilis. Facts Summary: The Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "mammals" and found in the following area(s): China, India, Southeast Asia. Key to the conservation of hoolock gibbons in these and other areas will be habitat protection. All gibbon species have undergone massive declines in population size primarily due to habitat destruction and alteration. The Western Hoolock Gibbon, the only wild ape found in India and also among the most endangered primates in the world, has found a safe haven thanks to the people of Meghalaya. Hemmed in by tea estates, the 20.98 sq km Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, near Mariani town in Assam’s Jorhat district, is unique in several ways. The actual number of species used by hoolock gibbons is likely to be higher and is highly variable depending on seasonality and geographic range (Ahsan 2001). 2004, 2006) and the reduction of edible plant species richness could be an important force driving these local extinctions. Hoolock gibbons have been placed within their own genus, Hoolock, as well as split into two discrete species, the western hoolock gibbon (H. hoolock) and the eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) (Mootnick & Groves 2005).However, in many publications, the two species are only considered distinct at the subspecific … This variable, although taken from the Forest Department's database, is unambiguous (and therefore useful) since it is clearly defined. However, although the plans are well thought out, implementation has not occurred at the desired level thereby preventing improvement in the population status of primates in these areas (Kabir & Muzaffar 2002, Islam et al. On top of this are the ever‐present effects of human populations living in and around some of these forest patches. Hoolock Gibbons, the only species of apes found in India, are threatened with extinction in the Ukhrul and Kamjong districts of Manipur HOOLOCK GIBBONS The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae, native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India, Myanmar and Southwest China . 2006). Normally they reach a … Each region has its distinct tree composition and forest canopy characteristics. News … (CNN) A newly-discovered species of gibbon should be named in honor of Luke Skywalker, say the Star Wars-loving scientists who found it. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The western hoolock is listed as Endangered in the IUCN Redlist. western hoolock gibbons singing are monogamous and live in small family groups (2 - 5 individuals) with the adult male and female and their offspring. Binomial name. In Arunachal Pradesh, villagers are helping the endangered hoolock gibbon swing from tree to tree In an Arunachal Pradesh village, locals are planting a corridor of gibbon-friendly trees in a bid to conserve the arboreal species in their natural habitat. The species is further sub-divided into the western and eastern hoolock gibbon. new Creature Feature is posted? The N F Railway authority has extended cooperation to the project. games and coloring pages! Species List ... Southern Yellow - cheeked Crested Gibbon Siamang Western Hoolock Genus . The discovery 54 of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small 55 apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia. Currently, hoolocks are categorized by the IUCN World Conservation Union in Bangladesh as critically endangered (IUCN 2000) and globally as endangered (IUCN 2006). 56 Keywords: New species, Hoolock tianxing, gibbon, Mt. Conference proceedings, The swinging singing apes: Fighting for food and family in far‐east forests, Primates in northeast India: An overview of their distribution and conservation status, First five‐year management plan for Lawachara National Park, Forestry Sector Project (1997/8‐2003/4), Volume 2: Background material and support material, First five‐year management plan for Rema‐Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Forestry Sector Project (1997/8‐2003/4), Volume 2: Background material and support material, The ecology and behavior of hoolock gibbons (, Species diversity and population density of non‐human primates in north‐east and south‐east of Bangladesh, Bangladesh environment: Facing the 21st Century, Field and laboratory methods in primatology, The distribution and status of Hoolock Gibbons in Bangladesh, The lesser apes: Evolutionary and behavioural biology, Notes on the ecology and behaviour of the Hoolock Gibbon, Conservation of gibbons in Yunnan Province, China, Red Book of threatened mammals of Bangladesh, The review of the present state of protected areas of Bangladesh, Statistical ecology: A primer on methods and computing, Conservation status of the primates of the Indo‐Chinese subregion, Conservation and captive management of hoolock gibbons in the Social Republic of the Union of Burma, Myth and reality in the rain forest: How conservation strategies are failing in West Africa. 2006). Gaoligong hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing), also known as Skywalker hoolock gibbon, was previously regarded as the easternmost population of Eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys), until scientifically described as a distinct species in 2017 based on its unique genetical and morphological characters (Fan et al., 2017). We examined the influence of area of natural forests, area of plantations, area of agricultural land and edible plant species richness on the hoolock gibbon numbers from 22 sites in Bangladesh using multiple regression analysis. Florian Magne, the huro programme founder, said today that Noree was born to Dawn at the centre near Tura, the district headquarters of West Garo Hills, on Monday. Mapping and assessing the transboundary elephant corridor in the Patharia Hills Reserve Forest of Assam, India. For corroboration surveys, field workers walked along 5–25 km of existing trails with a local guide. Improvement of habitat should involve carefully planned plantations of mixed native species providing food and habitat for hoolock gibbons. The eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) male can be differentiated from the western species (Hoolock hoolock) by its grizzled silver coloured chest; a silver genital tuft and the white brow streaks are widely separated in adult males and juveniles of both sexes instead of being The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the western Hoolock gibbon as Endangered, appearing on the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2017). Study area.— The present study was conducted in all the known hoolock habitats in Bangladesh, along with some habitats previously not surveyed for hoolocks. Check out our 2006). Do environmental attributes, disturbances and protection regimes determine the distribution of exotic plant species in Bangladesh forest ecosystem?. Hoolock gibbons are distributed in various northeastern states in India, with a current total population of more than 2600 individuals (Molur et al. 2005). The most recent estimate of hoolock gibbons is close to 300 individuals (Islam et al. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Evolution, Ecology and Conservation of Lorises and Pottos. Ahsan (1994, 2001) and Feeroz (2001) have stated the importance of a diversity of fruiting trees in hoolock gibbon survival. Hoolock gibbon survey sites in Bangladesh. Received 11 April 2006; revision accepted 4 October 2006. Fruits and flowers of A. chapalasha constitute an important component of the diet of hoolock gibbons and the higher representation of this species is of great significance to hoolock gibbon persistence in degraded areas (Ahsan 2001, Feeroz 2001, Islam et al. Unfortunately this charismatic species is facing habitat loss and hunting across its range. The smallest population used in the analyses was Rema Kalenga (2 individuals). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. "Populations of western hoolock gibbons have declined by almost 90% over the last 30 years, and it is now considered to be one of the most endangered 25 primate species in the world. 2006), indicating that the species is tenaciously holding on in limited patches of a suitable habitat. The data on tree species composition and density presented here cannot be compared to previous studies or to other existing degraded sites (on which there are no similar data). We also analyzed the existing habitat characteristics in two of the largest hoolock gibbon populations in Bangladesh: Lawachara (42 individuals) and Kaptai (84 individuals). In each study site, we recorded the total species richness of food‐trees present, based on the total list of species present in the Forest Department database and corroborated on the ground by field workers. Additionally, villagers living around important habitats should be carefully incorporated into conservation plans to prevent further degradation of these habitats by conversion to agricultural land. 2006) and in each site, forest paths or streams were walked slowly from dawn to 1600 h by two to four surveyors experienced in detecting hoolock gibbons. Each site also had an abundant variety of tree species utilized by hoolock gibbons for food. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh. This species is Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2006) for four sites. Wildlife conservation in many Asian and African countries suffers due to a variety of acute social and political problems (Oates 1999, Gain 2002). 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