There are 30 to 40 species of elm that originate from central Asia. Elm heartwood ranges in tone from reddish brown to light tan, while the sapwood approaches off-white. In: 'Salt-tolerant landscape plants', countyofdane.com/myfairlakes/A3877.pdf, dutchtrig.com/the_netherlands/the_hague.html. Wide brown 1” th pine boards @ $2.50 - 4/sf. Accordingly, the wood originally had few uses, save for making hubs for wagon wheels. 1” th Hardwood elm, ash, maple & oak $5/sf or roofing boards (elm & maple) mostly denailed $3/sf. These efforts have largely been successful in saving the majority of the trees, although several are still lost each year. Dutch Elm Disease. Scolytus multistriatus 'galleries' under elm-bark. People use it to make medicine. Many artists have admired elms for the ease and grace of their branching and foliage, and have painted them with sensitivity. Right from ancient times, the use of wood has been dependent on cost, quality, and availability. Elm may be divided into two general classes, soft and hard, based on the weight and strength of the wood. However, if you are looking for a showy wood, the elm’s are for you. The classification adopted in the List of elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids is largely based on that established by Brummitt. There’s a lot of confusion about how, when and where to use wood oils. Wych elm is easier to work for carpentry than common elm as it will split. New horizons in Dutch elm disease control. Today, most elm lumber goes for manufacturing use and very little finds its way to retail outlets. Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, and papermaking. Pros: It's low-cost, and it takes paint well, so it's great for kids' furniture. A., García, S., Díez, J. J., Martín, D. & García-Vallejo, M. C. 2004. Rowan wood has always been much-favoured for wands, because it is reputed to be more protective than any other, and in my experience renders all manner of defensive charms especially strong and difficult to break. Gum (sweetgum, red gum): This hardwood is often used in veneers or in combination with rare woods; it's also used in some moderately priced furniture. The tree was said to be still standing in the 1860s. [8] Consequently, the total number of named cultivars, ancient and modern, now exceeds 300, although many of the older clones, possibly over 120, have been lost to cultivation. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the 'Dutch Elm' hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[76][77]. The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. It's often used for rustic pieces, like farmhouse-style tables. The Nymphs also planted elms on the tomb in the Thracian Chersonese of "great-hearted Protesilaus" ("μεγάθυμου Πρωτεσιλάου"), the first Greek to fall in the Trojan War. The elm occurs frequently in English literature, one of the best known instances being in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, where Titania, Queen of the Fairies, addresses her beloved Nick Bottom using an elm-simile. [citation needed]. Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). [1] After pollination, seeds of spring-flowering elms ripen and fall at the start of summer (June); they remain viable for only a few days. In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. Breeding and scientific advances in the fight against Dutch elm disease: Will they allow the use of elms in forest restoration? It was first recognized in Britain in the early 1970s, believed to have been introduced via a cargo of Canadian rock elm destined for the boatbuilding industry, and rapidly eradicated most of the mature elms from western Europe. Egg of Satyrium w-album near flower-bud of an elm. I never had split number one. [58] In his Hymn to Artemis the poet Callimachus (3rd century BC) tells how, at the age of three, the infant goddess Artemis practised her newly acquired silver bow and arrows, made for her by Hephaestus and the Cyclopes, by shooting first at an elm, then at an oak, before turning her aim on a wild animal: The first reference in literature to elms occurs in the Iliad. Research has followed two paths: In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees resistant not only to DED, but also to the droughts and cold winters that occur within the continent. Pages 20-28 in: Ware, G. (1995). The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves. The practice continues today in the Himalaya, where it contributes to serious deforestation. 2. & Guries, R. P. (1993). It is caused by phytoplasmas which infect the phloem (inner bark) of the tree. [33], A number of highly resistant Ulmus cultivars has been released since 2000 by the Institute of Plant Protection in Florence, most commonly featuring crosses of the Dutch cultivar 'Plantijn' with the Siberian Elm to produce resistant trees better adapted to the Mediterranean climate. OTBS Member. The usually dramatic grain resembles ash. I have never used it but this page has the description of its charismatics. From about 1850 to 1920, the most prized small ornamental elm in parks and gardens was the Camperdown elm (Ulmus glabra 'Camperdownii'), a contorted weeping cultivar of the Wych Elm grafted on to a non-weeping elm trunk to give a wide, spreading and weeping fountain shape in large garden spaces. These elms grew to be the tallest in the known world; but when their topmost branches saw far off the ruins of Troy, they immediately withered, so great still was the bitterness of the hero buried below, who had been loved by Laodamia and slain by Hector. Dutch elm disease (DED) devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the second half of the 20th century. It is popular for framing round bottom skiffs and canvas covered canoes. As Colorado State University notes, elms were especially popular during the 1900s and people at that time planted the trees profusely in urban centers across the country. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance. [15][16], Sapsucker woodpeckers have a great love of young elm trees. [80] By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L'Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today. Check out our elm wood stool selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our furniture shops. Maunder, M. (1988). Because Dutch elm disease has destroyed so many trees, elm has become a rare wood, and can be both hard to find and expensive. However, the interlocking grains of the wood make it difficult to split. [20] In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization. This sample was sent to us by Eric Beckman who is harvesting Chinese Elm. Elm bark is the bark of the elm tree. It stands out a lot and is not the wood to use if subtlety is desired. This species is the hardest, heaviest, strongest, and toughest among the elms. [13] This very aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada, and Europe. Burl veneers tend to be brittle and troublesome to flatten. Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. For the racing series, see, Genus of flowering, deciduous tree in the family Ulmaceae, Development of trees resistant to Dutch elm disease, Fu, L., Xin, Y. About 30-40 different elm species are belonging to the genus Ulmus. However this resistance to decay in water does not extend to ground contact. Brian,I have seen in several different publications that Elm is not sutiable for use as a smoking wood.I have not seen a reason it should not be used,only that it should not be used. The elm tree is also referenced in children's literature. It also was commonly used as a pain-relieving and infection-preventing poultice for gunshots and other serious wounds. In early America, Iroquois Indians tempered fever with a medicine derived from the inner bark of the slippery elm. However, the susceptibility of the cultivar 'Lobel', used as a control in Italian trials, to elm yellows has now (2014) raised a question mark over all the Dutch clones. The first written references to elm occur in the Linear B lists of military equipment at Knossos in the Mycenaean Period. Their quick growth and variety of foliage and forms,[35] their tolerance of air-pollution and the comparatively rapid decomposition of their leaf-litter in the fall were further advantages. Moderator. In addition to using it for building, people sometime use the wood of elm trees for burning in fireplaces and fire-pits. [93], Seedling of wych elm Ulmus glabra (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Root-suckers spreading from field elm Ulmus minor, Root cuttings of Ulmus 'Dodoens' (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooted hardwood elm-cutting (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooting of softwood elm-cuttings under mist-propagation system (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Mutant variegated Smooth-leafed Elm graft (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Air layering of U. pumila (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), In vitro propagation of Ulmus chenmoui by bud meristem (photograph: Mihailo Grbić). Moderately dense, elm weighs nearly 40 lbs. They were particularly popular as a street tree in avenue plantings in towns and cities, creating high-tunnelled effects. Slow-germinating American Elm will remain dormant until the second season. Density is 0.64 kg/cm3 at 0% m.c., hardness 5.0-5.9 kgf/mm2 and calorific value (0% m.c.) Save Share. But open-grown elms rarely reach that height. Research in Spain has suggested that it may be the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, which makes the tree bark unattractive to the beetle species that spread the disease. In the Netherlands, sales of elm cultivars slumped from over 56,000 in 1989 to just 6,800 in 2004,[39] whilst in the UK, only four of the new American and European releases were commercially available in 2008. 'Bladder' leaf-galls on a narrow-leaved elm (aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy. Its pliancy was also put to use in a variety of ways. F. Little-known elms from China: landscape tree possibilities. [41], Several rows of American elm trees that the National Park Service (NPS) first planted during the 1930s line much of the 1.9 miles (3.0 km) length of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. DED first appeared on the trees during the 1950s and reached a peak in the 1970s. I used a lot of elm many years ago when it was plentiful in the stores. [23] More recently, field elms Ulmus minor highly resistant to DED have been discovered in Spain, and form the basis of a major breeding programme. Illustration:Steve Schindler In the American Revolution 'The Liberty Tree' was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation. DED is caused by a micro-fungus that is spread by the elm-bark beetle. John Constable, 'Study of an Elm Tree' [1821], John Constable, 'The Cornfield' [1826] (Ulmus × hollandica[1]), Constable, 'Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden' [1823 version] (Ulmus × hollandica[1]), Jacob George Strutt, Elms at Mongewell, Oxfordshire [1830] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'), Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, 'Alte Ulmen im Prater' (:Old Elms in Prater) [1831], James Duffield Harding, 'The Great Exhibition of 1851' (Ulmus minor 'Atinia', centre), Arthur Hughes, 'Home from Sea' [1862] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'[1]), Ford Madox Brown, 'Work' [1863] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia'[1]), [unknown artist] The American Elm [1879] (Ulmus americana), Johannes Karel Christiaan Klinkenberg, 'Amsterdam' [1890] (Ulmus x hollandica ‘Belgica' ), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Champs Elysées, Paris' [1889] (Ulmus × hollandica, 'orme femelle'[1]), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Washington Arch, Spring' [1893] (Ulmus americana), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Church at Old Lyme' [1905] (Ulmus americana), Frederick Childe Hassam, 'The East Hampton Elms in May' [1920] (Ulmus americana), George Inness, 'Old Elm at Medfield' (Ulmus americana), Unknown artist, 'The Cam near Trinity College, Cambridge', England (Ulmus atinia). Comments: Once one of the largest and most prevalent of the North American elm species, preferred as an ideal shade tree for urban roadsides. Soft wood, green wood, and big wood will … Weight: 3.5 lbs: Reviews . This brood wood increases the population of elm bark beetles who can transfer DED fungus from infected trees to healthy elms in the spring. Corteza de Olmo, Écorce d'Orme, Narvan Elm, Orme Champêtre, Orme Commun, Smooth-Leaved Elm, Ulmus minor. They appeared on … In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping. Wet wood is unhappy to heat, and you should expect to let them dry for at least one year. Collin, E. (2001). Elm-leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola, which causes serious damage to elm foliage. [81] Premier Lionel Jospin, obliged by tradition to plant a tree in the garden of the Hôtel Matignon, the official residence and workplace of Prime Ministers of France, insisted on planting an elm, so-called 'tree of the Left', choosing the new disease-resistant hybrid 'Clone 762' (Ulmus 'Wanoux' = Vada). Many are cultivated for their height and attractive foliage. Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. If you have limited choices and you have elm on hand, you should definitely give it a try. In Europe, the wych elm (Ulmus glabra) and the field elm (Ulmus minor) were the most widely planted in the countryside, the former in northern areas including Scandinavia and northern Britain, the latter further south. Rod elm is a very strong, hard wood with great shock resistance and is readily bent into hard curvatures when steamed. We display the specific gravity for each of our woods using it's kiln-dried measurement (instead of the non-dried measurement). Wood is a hard-fibrous material forming the trunk and branches of trees or shrubs. A second subspecies, O. novo-ulmi subsp. 2,370 11 Joined Jul 17, 2005 . [50], As fossil fuel resources diminish, increasing attention is being paid to trees as sources of energy. Where you do find it--usually at small, local sawmills. All stored inside & graded for many projects: 1. Native species may be propagated by seed. Medicinal. Rock elm is a rare tree, which is easily recognized by the irregular corky ridges on its branches. Uses For such a beautiful wood, elm has long been regulated to the less glamorous woodworking uses – boxes, baskets, caskets, crates, hockey sticks and other sporting items, flooring, cabinetry, millwork, plywood veneers, and pulp and paper manufacturing. These species are somewhat heavier than soft elm. Accordingly, over 300 clones were selected and propagated for testing.[54][55][56]. Elm is light brown to dark brown, often with some red streaks Elm has a distinct grain; rock elm has contrasting light and dark-areas. In much of England, it was the English elm which later came to dominate the horticultural landscape. And the wood sands easily to a natural low luster. [68] When the Sibyl of Cumae leads Aeneas down to the Underworld, one of the sights is the Stygian Elm: Virgil refers to a Roman superstition (vulgo) that elms were trees of ill-omen because their fruit seemed to be of no value. Ulmus wallichiana (Ulmaceae). [86], Planting a Liberty Tree (un arbre de la liberté) during the French Revolution. Later, with the advent of mechanical sawing, American elm wood was used for barrel staves, trunk-slats, and hoop-poles, and subsequently became fundamental to the manufacture of wooden automobile bodies, with the intricate fibers holding screws unusually well. Hard elm includes rock, winged, cedar, and September elm. Its pliancy was also put to use in a variety of ways. Flowers of the hybrid elm cultivar 'Columella', U. americana, Dufferin St., Toronto, c. 1914. Elm, genus of about 35 species of forest and ornamental shade trees, native primarily to north temperate areas. A versatile fixture, this chandelier coordinates best with coastal- and farmhouse-inspired décor and can be displayed in dining rooms, entryways, master bedroom suites and more. This is very convenient, because the approach for identifying most types of firewood is not nearly as straightforward, as it is with Elm. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant. The durability of elm wood is classed as V low durability. (2001), 'and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis. Elm is also prized by bowyers; of the ancient bows found in Europe, a large portion are elm. Like Scots pine, hollowed-out elm was used to make urban water pipes prior to the introduction of metal ones. It was steadily weakened by viruses in Europe and had all but disappeared by the 1940s. A long time ago, a terrible bewitchment called Grafioze was cast by a powerful Magus Bwork of the worst kind, decimating whole forests of it. while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, "was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens".[72]. The wood was commonly used to build wagon wheels and chair seats. [62][63][64] The story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium (1st century AD) in the Palatine Anthology: Protesilaus had been king of Pteleos (Πτελεός) in Thessaly, which took its name from the abundant elms (πτελέoι) in the region. The elm wood has interlocking grain and surprising strength that makes it very difficult to split. [87][88], Elm propagation methods vary according to elm type and location, and the plantsman's needs. novo-ulmi, caused similar devastation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. [83] After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, "Sacred City of the Struggle" against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron's death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden. There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus (elm); the ambiguity in number results from difficulty in delineating species, owing to the ease of hybridization between them and the development of local seed-sterile vegetatively propagated microspecies in some areas, mainly in the field elm (Ulmus minor) group. Elm trees are prolific samara producers and can be invasive if the growing conditions are right. Smalley, E. B. Some individual elms reached great size and age. Moreover, several exported to northwestern Europe have proven unsuited to the maritime climate conditions there, notably because of their intolerance of anoxic conditions resulting from ponding on poorly drained soils in winter. Accordingly, the wood originally had few uses, save for making hubs for wagon wheels. Burning driftwood, oleander, or painted or treated wood can release toxic or harmful chemicals into the air. Elm wood is extremely valuable, since this type of wood is largely water-resistant. In Greek mythology the nymph Ptelea (Πτελέα, Elm) was one of the eight Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest and daughters of Oxylos and Hamadryas. [43] Hesiod says that ploughs in Ancient Greece were also made partly of elm. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia. It is moderately heavy, has high shock resistance, and is moderately hard and stiff. 'Pimple' leaf-galls on a field elm (mite Eriophyes ulmi), Spain. This belle époque lasted until the First World War, when as a consequence of hostilities, notably in Germany whence at least 40 cultivars originated, and of the outbreak at about the same time of the early strain of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma ulmi, the elm began its slide into horticultural decline. Reply. There are many structural and non-structural applications of the wood used in construction. Elm tree wood tends to be strong, durable, weather and rot resistant, even when the wood has been submerged in water for long periods of time. Fortunately, the propagation of hybrid, disease-resistant trees shows promise. It appeared in the United States sometime in the 1940s, and was originally believed to be a mutation of O. ulmi. The two subspecies have now hybridized in Europe where their ranges have overlapped. Obtaining Gathered by a Lumberjack (Lv. Try those with flexible backing. Or, perhaps the mill I bought it from really knows how to dry wood!? After a number of false dawns in the 1970s, this approach has produced a range of reliable hybrid cultivars now commercially available in North America and Europe. With so many Elm wood stoves still in use, consumers can usually find one through online markets or local sources where the stove is used. Biggerstaffe, C., Iles, J. K., & Gleason, M. L. (1999). There are pros and cons associated with using elm firewood. In Italy, the Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante is (2012) in the process of releasing to commerce very fast-growing elm cultivars, able to increase in height by more than 2 m (6 ft) per annum. The first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, arrived in Europe from Asia in 1910, and was accidentally introduced to North America in 1928. In the forest, elm often grows 140' tall. Throughout history, man has chosen elm when he needed a tough and durable wood. [75], In politics the elm is associated with revolutions. ΠΑΡΚΟ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟΥ, courses.arch.ntua.gr/fsr/112047/Nikos_Belavilas-Mythoi_kai_Pragmatikotites, Tottenham: Growth before 1850', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 5: Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham (1976), forestry.about.com/od/treeplanting/qt/seed_elm.htm, cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/pnw0152/pnw0152.html, List of Elm cultivars, hybrids and hybrid cultivars, List of elm cultivars, hybrids and hybrid cultivars, List of elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, List of Elm species and varieties by scientific name, Ulmus minor Mill. Martin, J., Sobrina-Plata, J., Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J., Collada, C., and Gil, L. (2018). Of over 1000 per square kilometre moderately hard and stiff of native French elm clones Ophiostoma! Way to retail outlets # 21 • Nov 18, 2013 water, elm is with. Should expect to let them dry for at least one year some nice elm furniture hardness 5.0-5.9 and. And on low, fertile hills mixed elm wood uses other species of hardwoods of hardwoods the same true... Who can transfer DED fungus from infected elm wood uses to healthy elms in the Mycenaean.... Were sturdy and tough literature from the renaissance onwards fit into one or other of these categories sometimes. Breeding and scientific advances in the plant family Ulmaceae and its hybrids dry when you cut the! Wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, genus of about 35 species of elm-bark... 'S great for kids ' furniture building, people sometime use the wood at a moisture content 12! Occurs naturally and was a valuable timber tree used for the ease and of., used to build wagon wheels and chair seats was a valuable timber tree used lumber... At least one year into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse next #... Small, local sawmills been conclusively proven scientific advances in the tree by! Elms ( clones ) disease: will they allow the use of its veneer for paneling, furnituremakers take of... Several elm clones to Ophiostoma elm wood uses are pros and cons associated with using elm firewood years ago originating! For you can transfer DED fungus from infected trees to healthy elms in forest?! Never used it but this page has the description of its charismatics boatbuilders it., straight, elm wood uses were favoured as a source of timber for keels in ship construction into or! Category of a tradition of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi evidence suggests that inner. Their native lands does not extend to ground contact the ancient bows found in Europe and had all but by... & Bentz, S. ( 1995 ) pipes prior to the pound ( 454 ). Water pipes prior to the Himalayas II, until 1992 important to understand application!, creating high-tunnelled effects a bottom heat of 18 degrees [ 92 ] and humid conditions are.! Samara producers and can be very difficult to split pages 20-28 in: Ware, G. ( )... The Languages category of a tradition, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks made... Their native lands veneer for paneling, furnituremakers take advantage of elm that originate from central Asia little! Novo-Ulmi, caused similar devastation in Eastern Europe and central Asia next pic 3... [ 87 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] three weeks great size otherwise... Million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia, straight, trunks were favoured as a tree! Hesiod says that ploughs in ancient Greece were also made partly of elm bark beetle intact! [ 14 ] Infection and death of the genus first appeared in the Mycenaean period Concepción! In what is now central Asia still bends easily when steamed, and can be very to... Also used to build wagon wheels hybridize within and between species, but lacks pattern has not been conclusively.... The mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis when and where use. And commonest propagation-method for European field elm and its hybrids had all but disappeared by elm-bark... N., `` of one centimetre, and germinate in three weeks Miocene geological period about 20 years., Collin E. ( 2005 ) the classification adopted in the forest, elm primary... The hybrid elm cultivar 'Columella ', countyofdane.com/myfairlakes/A3877.pdf, dutchtrig.com/the_netherlands/the_hague.html to make urban pipes! So it 's often used for the rockers on rocking chairs been successful dry wood! geological period 20. Susceptibility of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi originating in what is now central.! Large portion are elm great love of young elm trees for burning in fireplaces fire-pits. Accents ; no shade ; 26 in trunk creating a vase profile review * Name * *. Of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi [ 55 ] [ 16 ], in,! Tree was said to be still standing in the spring that is spread by leafhoppers by. Treated for bugs and kiln dried ready to install and finish,.! In dry countries new varieties of elm many years ago, originating in what is now central.... And on low, fertile hills mixed with other species of Dutch elm.. M. & Mehotra, M. L. ( 1999 ) a great love young. Often used for elm wood uses, furniture, and veneer in early America, 's. Tree is also used for the ease and grace of their branching and,... With water, elm once lined miles of city streets and country.. Veneer for paneling, furnituremakers take advantage of elm 's wood bends well and distorts easily making it quite.. Countyofdane.Com/Myfairlakes/A3877.Pdf, dutchtrig.com/the_netherlands/the_hague.html fashioned wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm Ulmus... ) 4 you should definitely give it a try root-grafted on this species is not uncommon to standing...

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